On 24 October Kristian Hoelscher defended his doctoral thesis “Institutions and Social Violence” at the University of Oslo. Read the article on his research in Pernambuco in north-eastern Brazil, demonstrating the large impact institutions have a on the prevalence of violence in a society – in English (at www.sv.uio.no) or in Norwegian (at www.forskning.no).
Pentecostals are the fastest growing religious group in Latin America, and the second largest after Catholics. In Argentina Hans Geir Aasmundsen has observed how they are increasingly engaging in social questions, and he predicts that the Pentecostal churches will come to challenge the position the Catholic Church has had in politics over centuries.
Diarrheal diseases and dengue fever are major health problems in Colombia. The Norwegian University of Life Sciences in collaboration with researchers from the UK and Colombia are looking at the combined risk of getting diarrhea infections and dengue fever, and whether integrated intervention measures can improve the health situation for school children at primary schools in Colombia.
Cuban nationalism amplified by patriotic salsa rhythms replaced Marxist ideology when the Soviet Union collapsed and the Russians went home. Read the interview with Kjetil Klette Bøhler, based on his PhD dissertation in Musicology at the University of Oslo, in the Research Magazine Apollon.
Many Latin American countries have a presidential government based on multi-party coalitions. Leiv Marsteintredet, University of Oslo, is seeking to find out whether the office of vice president in such governments is a source of political stability or instability. Read the interview with Marsteintredet in the Research Magazine Apollon.
Sexual violence is a major problem in Nicaragua, but even if the woman's life is in danger, she has no right to abortion, tells Birgit Kvernflaten, University of Oslo, who has done research on the health system and maternal health in Nicaragua, in an interview with the Research Magazine Apollon (in Norwegian).
Small farmers in the Peruvian Andes relate to water as a living being. They sacrifice llama fat, coca leaves and alcohol to the water source. Now, climate change and the global economy may lead to major changes in their culture. Read the interview with Astrid B. Stensrud, University of Oslo in the Research Magazine Apollon (in Norwegian).
In their research on transitional justice, Nora Sveaas, University of Oslo, and Anne-Margrethe Sønneland, Diakonhjemmet University College, explore the role and importance of legal settlements and compensation schemes for victims of torture, forced disappearance and similar serious human rights violations in Peru and Argentina. Read the interview in the Research Magazine Apollon (in Norwegian).
Since 2002 the Department of Criminology and Sociology of Law at the Unvisersity of Oslo has cooperated with the University of Havana on exchange of researchers and teaching of Criminology for Cuban lawyers. Read the article in the Research Magazine Apollon (in Norwegian).
What are the consequences for honeybees from living nearby genetically modified maize crops? And do genetically modified products have an impact on the size of a dung beetle population? A Norwegian - Brazilian cooperative research project are investigating these, and many other questions related to the impact of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO's).
Researcher and PhD candidate Cecilie Hirsch examines the challenges of implementing the international climate change mitigation initiative REDD (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) in the Bolivian context, and focuses on the role of civil society and social movements in the shaping of environmental policy.
Audun Solli is doctoral candidate at the Interfaculty research area Cultural Transformations in the Age of Globalization (Kultrans) at the University of Oslo. His research analyzes Mexican and Venezuelan cinema to answer questions about the nature of modern states and how they are best conceptualized.
After completing 8,000 interviews in 21 countries, a unique project on attitudes towards Latin-American Spanish and how they form the linguistic identity of its speakers, is coming to an end.
Article in Norwegian (pages 40-41) from the magazine Hubro.
Many scientists and students from both Brazil and Norway have been involved in the project "BERRYSYS - A systems approach to biological control in organic and integrated strawberry production".
Researcher Anna Birgitte Milford has examined why some coffee farmers are still unwilling to join co-operatives which can provide them the Fairtrade label.
Torbjørn Haugaasen has been leading a project investigating the ecology of the Brazil nut tree.The tree produces one of the most socio-economically important non-timber forest products in Amazonia – the Brazil nut (paranøtter).
What would Brazilian workers and trade unions gain from a social clause – a linkage between the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) that would condition a country's trading rights on its compliance with core labour standards, including freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining?
What happens to old economic elite groups when economic liberalization removes old privileges and economic globalization requires outward orientation and competition for home markets? And what are the implications of their strategies to confront these new challenges for the sustainable development of their home countries?
A multidisciplinary research project called “Desired immigrants - Frustrated Adventurers? Norwegians in Latin America, 1820 – 1940” (NiLA) was initiated in 2008 involving researchers in Norway and Latin America. Central to the project is the development of a database that will provide information about almost every Norwegian who traveled to Latin America during that period.
A research project has recently been started at the Section for International Studies at the Norwegian Institute of Urban and Regional Research (NIBR) named “How formalization closed the gender land gap in Peru and the impact on women’s empowerment”. The project analyses gender relations and land ownership from an economic perspective, applying flexible methodologies of investigation.
Bjørn Ola Tafjord, Associate Professor at the Department of History and Religious Studies of the University of Tromsø, is studying dynamics of and interactions between religions and indigenous traditions in Talamanca, the south-eastern region of Costa Rica.
Latin America is experiencing an increasing call for more domestic controls of national resources and growing claims for a redistribution of the nations’ oil wealth from civil society. With increased revenues from oil and gas and new policy regimes in Bolivia and Venezuela, programmes for social and economic development have been publicized. “Flammable Societies” is an international research project that explores the organisation and outcome of these programmes, their potentials in reducing poverty and the conflicting interests between differing ethnic groups and classes.
In her PhD research project anthropologist Margit Ystanes explores the conditions under which a concession holding community of loggers and chicleros (men extracting chewing gum base from the forest for export purposes) in Guatemala enters into collaboration with representatives of national and foreign ‘developers’ of tourism. Ystanes suggests that people’s concept of trust should stand centrally in a comprehension of why the cooperation forum does not appear to fulfil all its proclaimed intentions.
Does original literature really exist? And if not, what is actually plagiarism ? These are among the issues that Wladimir Chavez deals with in his PhD research. From his desk in Halden, the young Ecuadorian researcher is stepping in to a literary minefield as he revises former evaluations and accusations of plagiarism among some of the history’s greatest Hispanic writers and poets. Chávez has developed his own methodology of text comparison, in order to clarify inconsistencies in use of literary terminology related to plagiarism , among colleagues.
A large collaborative research project aimed at improving the forage value of degraded pastures in Central America is now coming to an end. But the research continues, due to the project’s interesting findings and methodology.